Thursday, July 3, 2008

Reading Skills

Reading Skills – These are skills that make reading more convenient thus making comprehension more efficient.

Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. When you read the newspaper, you're probably not reading it word-by-word, instead you're scanning the text. Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. People often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time. Use skimming when you want to see if an article may be of interest in your research.

There are many strategies that can be used when skimming. Some people read the first and last paragraphs using headings, summarizes and other organizers as they move down the page or screen. You might read the title, subtitles, subheading, and illustrations. Consider reading the first sentence of each paragraph. This technique is useful when you're seeking specific information rather than reading for comprehension. Skimming works well to find dates, names, and places. It might be used to review graphs, tables, and charts.

Scanning is a technique you often use when looking up a word in the telephone book or dictionary. You search for key words or ideas. In most cases, you know what you're looking for, so you're concentrating on finding a particular answer. Scanning involves moving your eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. Scanning is also used when you first find a resource to determine whether it will answer your questions. Once you've scanned the document, you might go back and skim it.

Notetaking is the practice of writing pieces of information, often in an informal or unstructured manner. One major specific type of notetaking is the practice of writing in shorthand, which can allow large amounts of information to be put on paper very quickly. Notes are frequently written in notebooks, though any available piece of paper can suffice in many circumstances—some people are especially fond of Post-It notes, for instance. Notetaking is an important skill for students, especially at the college level. Many different forms are used to structure information and make it easier to find later. Computers, particularly tablet PCs and personal digital assistants (PDAs) are beginning to see wide use as notetaking devices.

Professional Notetakers provide access to information for people who cannot take their own notes, in particular Deaf and hard of hearing people. Manual notetaking requires pen and paper and Electronic Notetaking (or Computer-Assisted Notetaking) requires laptops with special notetaking software. Professional Notetakers most frequently work in colleges and universities but also in workplace meetings, appointments, conferences, and training sessions. They are usually educated to degree level. In the UK they are increasingly expected to have a professional notetaking qualification, such as that offered by the Council for the Advancement of Communication with Deaf People (CACDP).

Linear Notes

Taking notes in a linear or sequential fashion is probably the most common way of
laying out your notes. A wide left-hand margin is used so that you can add material
at a later date.

Patter Notes

Taking notes in a patterned fashion, or creating mind maps, may look messy but it
helps you to think creatively. The pattern itself, including the use of images, colours,
symbols, arrows and capital letters, helps to convey meaning by showing the
relationship between concepts, and highlighting important points. Sometimes mind
maps are referred to as “brain patterns” as they are said to reflect how the brain
works, and can help it to handle more than one idea at once. They are also useful
for sorting out ideas after “brainstorming” sessions and in particular for planning
essays and exam revision.

A useful tool to help you with the brainstorming process, and the recording of ideas,
is a software package called Inspiration. This is available on the PCs in the Enabling Technology Rooms and group study rooms. Ask at the Information Desks for more details.

Column Notes

Column notes group information according to its type and then arrange it in columns.
The number of columns depends upon the type of information being dealt with and
what it is being used for.

In the simplest versions the main ideas or headings are listed in the left hand column
and details and explanations are listed in the right hand column. More complex
models use three columns, which allow you to record the main notes in the middle
column. You then try to keyword the main points of your notes in the left hand
column and record your comments, questions, opinions etc in the right hand column.

Tabular Notes

Notes can be set out in a tabular format with fixed headings, into which you insert
the relevant information. They should be kept as brief as possible without
sacrificing clarity.

Systems

Cornell Notes

When using the Cornell note-taking system a strip of white space is left to the left side of the notes that are written as they come up. Questions or key words based on the notes are written in the white space after the session has ended. The Cornell method requires no rewriting and yet results in systematic notes.

Charting

Charting means that one creates a table with rows and columns. This is a useful method for facts and relationships.

Outlining

While notes can be written freely, many people structure their writing in an outline. A common system consists of headings that use Roman numerals, letters of the alphabet, and the common Arabic numeral system at different levels. A typical structure would be:

I. First main topic

A. Subtopic

1. Detail

2. Detail

B. Subtopic

II. Second main topic

A. Subtopic

However, this sort of structure has limitations since it is difficult to go back and insert more information. It is possible to simply leave large spaces in between, but another common alternative is a mind map. (See Category:Outliners for more about application software that supports outlining)

Mapping

Here, ideas are written with lines connecting them together in a tree-like structure. Mind Maps are commonly drawn this way, but with a central point, many colors, little graphics and anything that helps to visualize the information easier. The Mind Map starts with a purpose or goal and then identifies all the ideas that contribute to the goal. It is also used for planning and writing essays.

Sentence method

Every new thought is written as a new line. Speed is the most desirable attribute of this method because not much thought about formatting is needed to form the layout and create enough space for more notes. Also, you must number each new thought.

SQ3R

SQ3R is a method for taking notes from written material, though it might be better classed as method of reading and gaining understanding. Material is skimmed to produce a list of headings, that are then converted into questions. These questions are then considered whilst the text is read to provide motivation for what is being covered. Notes are written under sections headed by the questions as each of the material's sections is read. One then makes a summary from memory, and reviews the notes.

Highlighting/Underlining is used to help students organize what they have read by selecting what is important. This strategy teaches students to highlight/underline ONLY the key words, phrases, vocabulary, and ideas that are central to understanding the reading.

Tuesday, July 1, 2008

Wika

Katuturan

Binanggit ni Austero et al (1999) mula kay Gleason na “ang wika ay masistemang balangkas ng sinasalitang tunog na isinaayos sa paraang arbitraryo. Ang mga tunog ay hinugisan/binigyan ng mga makabuluhang simbolo (letra) na pinagsama-sama upang makabuo ng mga salita na gamit sa pagpapahayag.”

Dagdag naman nina Mangahis et al (2005) na ang wika ay may mahalagang papel na ginagampanan sa pakikipagtalastasan. Ito ang midyum na ginagamit sa maayos na paghatid at pagtanggap ng mensahe na susi sa pagkakaunawaan.

Kahalagahan ng Wika

Mahalaga ang wika sapagkat:

ito ang midyum sa pakikipagtalastasan o komunikasyon;

  1. ginagamit ito upang malinaw at efektivong maipahayag ang damdamin at kaisipan ng tao;
  2. sumasalamin ito sa kultura at panahong kanyang kinabibilangan;
  3. at isa itong mabuting kasangkapan sa pagpapalaganap ng kaalaman.

Katangian ng wika

  1. Ang wika ay isang masistemang balangkas dahil ito ay binubuo ng mga makabuluhang tunog (fonema) na kapag pinagsama-sama’y sa makabuluhang sikwens ay makalilikha ng mga salita (morfema) na bumabagay sa iba pang mga salita (semantiks) upang makabuo ng mga pangungusap. Ang pangungusap ay may istraktyur (sintaks) na nagiging basehan sa pagpapakahulugan sa paggamit ng wika.
    1. Ponolohiya o fonoloji – pag-aaral ng fonema o ponema; ang fonema ay tawag sa makabuluhang yunit ng binibigkas na tunog sa isang wika. Halimbawa ay ang mga fonemang /l/, /u/, /m/, /i/, /p/, /a/ at /t/ na kung pagsama-samahin sa makabuluhang ayos ay mabubuo ang salitang [lumipat].
    1. Morpolohiya o morfoloji – pag-aaral ng morfema; ang morfema ay tawag sa pinamakamaliit na makabuluhang yunit ng salita sa isang wika. Sa Filipino ang tatlong uri ng morfema ay ang salitang-ugat, panlapi at fonema.

Salitang-ugat = tao, laba, saya, bulaklak, singsing, doktor, dentista

Panlapi = mag-, -in-, -um-, -an/-han

Fonema = a

*tauhan, maglaba, doktora

c. Sintaksis – pag-aaral ng sintaks; sintaks ay ang tawag sa formasyon ng mga pangungusap sa isang wika. Sa Filipino, maaaring mauna ang paksa sa panaguri at posible naman ang kabaligtaran nito. Samantalang sa Ingles laging nauuna ang paksa.

Hal. Mataas ang puno.

Ang puno ay mataas.

The tree is tall. (hindi maaaring ‘Tall is the tree.’ o ‘Tall the tree.’)

d. Semantiks – pag-aaral ng relasyon ng salita sa bawat isa sa iisang pangungusap; ang mga salita sa pagbuo ng pangungusap ay bumabagay sa iba pang salita sa pangungusap upang maging malinaw ang nais ipahayag.

Hal. Inakyat niya ang puno.

Umakyat siya sa puno.

Makikita na nang ginamit ang pandiwang [inakyat] ang panghalip ng aktor sa pangungusap ay [niya] at ang pantukoy sa paksa ay [ang]. Samantalang sa ikalawang pangungusap ang pandiwa ay napalitan ng [umakyat] kaya nakaapekto ito sa panghalip ng aktot na dati’y [niya] ngayo’y [siya] sa. Imbis na pantukoy na [ang] ay napalitan na ng pang-ukol na [sa]. Nagkaiba na ang kahulugan ng dalawang pangungusap.

  1. Ang wika ay binubuo ng mga tunog. Upang magamit nang mabuti ang wika, kailangang maipagsama-sama ang mga binibigkas na tunog upang makalikha ng mga salita. (Tingnan ang ponolohiya)
  1. Ang wika ay arbitraryo. Lahat ng wika ay napagkakasunduan ng mga gumagamit nito. Alam ng mga Ilokano na kapag sinabing [balay], bahay ang tinutukoy nito. Sa Chavacano naman ay [casa] kapag nais tukuyin ang bahay at [bay] naman sa Tausug samantalang [house] sa Ingles.
  1. Ang wika ay may kakanyahan. Lahat ng wika ay may sariling set ng palatunugan, leksikon at istrukturang panggramatika. May katangian ang isang wika na komon sa ibang wika samantalang may katangian namang natatangi sa bawat wika.

Halimbawa

Wikang Swahili – atanipena (magugustuhan niya ako)

Wikang Filipino – Opo, po

Wikang Subanon – gmangga (mangga)

Wikang Ingles – girl/girls (batang babae/mga batang babae)

Wikang Tausug – tibua (hampasin mo), pugaa (pigain mo)

Wikang French – Francois (pangngalan /fransh-wa/)

Mapapansin sa wikang Swahili (isang wika sa Kanlurang Afrika) isang salita lamang ngunit katumbas na ng isang buong pangungusap na yunik sa wikang ito. Sa Filipino lamang matatagpuan ang mga salitang opo at po bilang paggalang. Sa Subanon naman, mayroong di pangkaraniwang ayos ng mga fonema gaya ng di-kompatibol na dalawang magkasunod na katinig sa iisang pantig na wala sa karamihang wika. Sa Ingles naman, isang fonema lamang ang idinagdag ngunit nagdudulot ng makabuluhang pagbabago. Sa Tausug naman ang pagkabit ng fonemang /a/ ay nagdudulot na ng paggawa sa kilos na saad ng salitang-ugat. Sa French naman, mayroon silang natatanging sistema sa pagbigkas ng mga tunog pangwika.

  1. Ang wika ay buhay o dinamiko. Patuloy na nagbabago at yumayaman ang wika. Nagbabagu-bago ang kahulugan ng isang salita na dumaragdag naman sa leksikon ng wika.

Halimbawa: BOMBA

Kahulugan

a. Pampasabog

b. Igipan ng tubig mula sa lupa

c. Kagamitan sa palalagay ng hangin

d. Bansag sa malalaswa at mapanghalay na larawan at pelikula

e. Sikreto o baho ng mga kilalang tao

  1. Lahat ng wika ay nanghihiram. Humihiram ang wika ng fonema at morfema mula sa ibang wika kaya’t ito’y patuloy na umuunlad. Gaya sa Chavacano, binibigkas na ang ‘ka’ na hiniram sa Visaya bilang kapalit ng ‘tu’ at ‘bo’. Ang Filipino ay madalas manghiram gaya ng paghiram sa mga salitang [jip, jus at edukasyon] na mula sa Ingles na [juice], [jip] at Kastilang [educa─çion].
  1. Ang wika at kultura ay magkabuhol at hindi maaaring paghiwalayin.
  1. Ang wika ay bahagi ng komunikasyon.
  1. Nasusulat ang wika. Bawat tunog ay sinasagisag ng mga titik o letra ng alfabeto. Ang tunog na “bi” ay sinasagisag ng titik na ‘b’. Ang simbolong ‘m’ ay sumasagisag sa tunog na “em”.
  1. May level o antas ang wika.

Antas ng wika

  1. formal at di-formal – di-formal na wika ang wikang ginagamit ng tao sa ka-edad samantalang formal naman ang wikang gingamit ng tao sa nakatataas o nakatatanda
  2. lingua franca – wikang ginagamit ng karamihan sa isang bansa; sa Pilipinas ang Filipino ang lingua franca ng mga tao
  3. kolokyal o lalawiganin – wikang ginagamit ng mga tao sa lalawigan gaya ng Chavacano, Tausug, Cebuano, Ilonggo, Visaya at iba pa
  4. balbal o pangkalye – wikang ginagamit ng tao na halos likha-likha lamang at may kanya-kanyang kahulugan gaya ng wika ng mga tambay at bakla – halimbawa ang mga salitang ‘eklavush’, ‘erpat at ermat’ at ‘cheverloo’.
  5. edukado/malalim – wikang ginagamit sa panitikan, sa mga paaralan at pamantasan, sa gobyerno, sa korte at iba pang okasyong profesyunal

Teorya ng pinagmulan ng wika

v Teorya sa Tore ng Babel – Ang teoryang ito ay nahalaw mula sa Banal na Kasulatan. Ayon sa pagsasalaysay, noong umpisa’y iisa ang wika ng tao na biyaya ng Diyos. Dahil sa nagkakaunawaan ang lahat, napag-isipang magtayo ng isang tore upang hindi na magkawatak-watak at nang mahigitan ang Panginoon. Nang nabatid ito ng Panginoon, bumaba Siya sa lupa at sinira ang tore. Nang nawasak na ang tore, nagkawatak-watak na ang tao dahil iba-iba na ang wikang kanilang binibigkas kaya nagkanya-kanya na sila at kumalat sa mundo.

v Teoryang Bow-wow – Sinasabi sa teoryang ito na nagkaroon ng wika ang tao dahil noong umpisa’y ginagaya nila ang tunog na nililikha ng mga hayop gaya ng tahol ng aso, tilaok ng manok at huni ng ibon.

v Teoryang Ding-dong – Maliban sa tunog ng hayop, ginagaya naman daw ng tao ang tunog ng kalikasan at paligid gaya ng pagtunog ng kampana, patak ng ulan at langitngit ng kawayan.

v Teoryang Pooh-pooh – Ang tao ay nakalilikha ng tunog sanhi ng bugso ng damdamin. Gamit ang bibig, napabubulalas ang mga tunog ng pagdaing na dala ng takot, lungkot, galit, saya at paglalaan ng lakas.

v Teoryang Yo-he-ho – Isinasaad dito na nagsimula ang wika sa indayog ng himig-awitin ng mga taong sama-samang nagtatrabaho.

v Teoryang Yum-yum – Sinasabi sa teoryang ito na ang wika ay nagmula sa pagkumpas ng maestro ng musika at sa bawat kumpas ay nagagawa niyang lumikha ng tunog mula sa kanyang labi.

Parts of the Book

Cover - To put something over or upon, as to protect, conceal or enclose.

Spine - The back part of the book and it faces outward when you shelf the book right.

Title Page - The page at the beginning of the book, usually containing the title of the book and the names of the author and publisher.

Copyright Page - Where the copyright date is found.

Dedication Page- The place where the author dedicates the book to someone.

Table of Contents - A list of the books contents, arranged by chapter, section, subsection, Etc...

Forward - An introduction by someone other than the author, and it is usually a famous person.

Text (or Body) - The actual words of the book.

Glossary - A list of hard words with their meanings often printed in the back of the book.

Bibliography - A list of books, articles etc. used or referred to by the author at the end of the book.

Index-A list of names and subjects in alphabetical order at the end of the book with its page

Types of Reference Books

Dictionaries and encyclopedias are some of the most common types of reference works, but there are many kinds. The following is a list of reference books, what they do, and an example for each:

Reference books can also be divided according to their content: FICTION and NONFICTION. Fictional references include imaginary writings while the other includes writings that convey facts.

· General Dictionaries and Thesauri - give word meanings, spellings, and histories (dictionaries) or synonyms and related words (thesaurus).
Example: Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (REF PE 1628.M36 1993).

· Encyclopedias - contain articles on subjects in various fields, usually including helpful bibliographies. They can be either general or specialized.
General example: Encyclopedia Americana (Index area: REF AE5.E333 2001). Specialized example: Encyclopedia of Drugs and Alcohol (REF HV5804.E53 1995).

Encyclopedias, General

Contain an alphabetically organized listing of a broad range of subjects with basic information for each entry. General encyclopedias provide a good basis for the beginning stages of research. They are also helpful resources for ready reference questions.
Example -- World Book Encyclopedia

Encyclopedias, Subject

Contain the same type of information and organized like a general encyclopedia. The entries are limited to those that fall within the subject encyclopedia's scope of the coverage.
Example -- The Grolier Encyclopedia of Science and Technology

· Indexes - tell where information can be found in other sources.
Example: Granger's Index to Poetry (REF PN4321.G88 1970-77).

· Yearbooks - (often called annuals) chronicle the events of a certain year, usually in a particular field.
Example: The Statesman’s Year-Book (Reference desk: REF JA 51.S7 1996-97).

· Handbooks and Manuals - are often "how to" books, containing instructions and miscellaneous items of information on one subject.
Example: American Electricians’ Handbook (REF TK151.C8 1992).

· Almanacs - are collections of facts, charts and statistics.
Example: World Almanac and Book of Facts (Reference Desk: REF AY67.W927).

· Biographical Dictionaries - provide short sketches about the lives of important people. Example: Who's Who in America (REF E176.W642).

· Directories - list names and addresses of persons, organizations, businesses.
Example: The College Blue Book (REF LA226.C685).

· Atlases or Gazetteers - are visual representations (atlases) or geographical dictionaries (gazetteers) that provide information about places.
Example: Columbia-Lippincott Gazetteer of the World (REF G103.L7).

· Bibliographies - provide lists of materials about a particular subject.
Example: International Terrorism: An Annotated Bibliography and Research Guide (REF Z7164.T3 N67).

· Statistical Sources—give data or numbers that have been compiled to quantify and compare the characteristics of people, places or things
Example: Statistical Abstract of the United States (Reference desk: REF HA202)